In the twentieth century, aviation began to flourish. There is a need to design parachutes to rescue the pilots. Former parachutes were cumbersome and unsuitable for aviation. In 1911, the Russian inventor Gleb Evgenievich Kotelnikov developed a special parachute especially for pilots – a free-action backpack parachute.
The parachute had a round shape and fit in a metal satchel, located on the pilot with the help of a suspension system. At the bottom of the knapsack, under the dome, there were springs that threw the dome into the stream after the paratrooper pulled out the hood. Subsequently, the rigid knapsack was replaced with a soft one, and honeycombs appeared at its bottom for placing a sling in them. This design of the rescue parachute is still used.
In the post-revolutionary years, Kotelnikov continued to work on parachutes – already for Soviet aviation. The first in the USSR rescue parachute was used by test pilot MM. Gromov June 23, 1927 at the Khodynka airfield. He deliberately put the car into a tailspin, from which he could not get out, and at an altitude of 600 meters left the plane with a rescue parachute.
A parachute of American firm made of pure silk was used (by the way, all the pilots who escaped with the help of the parachutes of this firm were given a distinctive sign – a small golden figure of the silkworm). In the same year, these parachutes saved the lives of two more test pilots: V. Pisarenko and B. Buchholz.
A little later, a special service to provide for the rescue of pilots in flight appeared in Soviet aviation, organized by L.G. Mines. On July 26, 1930, a group of military pilots under the leadership of Minova for the first time performed jumps from a multi-seat aircraft. Since then, this day is considered the beginning of the mass development of parachuting in the USSR.
In 1951, the first World Parachuting Championship was held. In 1982, there were already about 60 countries in the international parachute commission. Today, parachuting competitions are held in the following categories: landing accuracy; long jumps; individual acrobatics (with the implementation of a complex of acrobatic figures); group acrobatics; dome acrobatics.
Gear for parachuting
The dome and the system – a backpack, in which the parachute and special mounts are folded, which will not allow the parachutist to fall out of the system during the opening of the dome.
Reserve parachute – designed for operation in case of failure of the main parachute.
Clothing – for skydiving, a special skydiving suit or sports suit that protects against wind and cold is required.
Shoes – special boots for parachutes holding the ankle firmly. Lacing the front and back gives protection from dislocation and stretching.
Helmet – for safety and to protect the eyes during free fall, a parachute-motorcycle helmet is required.
Parachute jumps are made from various flying objects, an airplane, a helicopter, at pre-designated places or in specially designated places – airfields. BASE jumps are made from static objects: bridges, tall buildings, etc. One of the most difficult jumps – high jumps.