History of skydiving
The word parachute comes from the Greek word para – “against” and the French chute – “fall”, which literally means “against falling.”
The idea of creating a parachute belongs to the famous Italian artist, inventor and scientist Leonardo da Vinci. In one of his manuscripts there is a pyramidal image resembling a parachute. The scientist described in detail its construction and how it works.
Subsequently, the Frenchman Laven, who was born in the city of Savoy, developed this idea. He served his sentence in one of the fortresses of the city and decided to escape in a very unusual way. Laven sewed a tent out of pieces of fabric, attached a plate of whalebone and a rope to its bottom. Holding on to the ropes, he jumped from the wall of the fortress and landed safely. However, the guards noticed the fugitive and detained him.
Interesting story and Jean Dumier. The Frenchman had to be executed, but he was offered an alternative to execution: he had to experience Professor Fontange’s flying cloak and, in case of a successful landing, Dumeye was promised to be released. To the great delight of the prisoner, the jump from the roof of the tower was successful and Dumier was given life.
In the 18th century, parachutes received their practical application in the development of ballooning. In 1783, the Frenchman Lenormand made a jump with his own designed parachute. He called his invention “parachute” from the French – “parachute”. This name was firmly established in everyday life and was fixed for this kind of devices.
Jump of the French inventor Arne-Jacques Garderen
In 1797, another Frenchman, inventor Garnerin, jumped on a parachute of his own invention. It is interesting that his parachute became the prototype of the modern.
The most developed parachute sport was with the beginning of the development of aviation. Already in the early 20th century, a special parachute was created. Its creator is the Russian inventor Gleb Evgenievich Kotelnikov. The parachute had a round shape, fit into a metal satchel located on the pilot with the help of a suspension system. At the bottom of the knapsack under the dome springs were located, which threw the dome into the stream, after the jumper pulled out the hood. Subsequently, the rigid satchel was replaced with a soft one, and the lines began to fit into the honeycomb at its bottom. This design parachute used in aviation so far.
In the United States in 1922, the parachute was used for the first time for rescue purposes. The American pilot, Lieutenant Harris escaped with a parachute, jumped out of a faulty plane.
New directions in parachuting
Already after World War II, new directions began to develop in parachuting. At this time, there is an active modernization of the structures of all types of parachutes, the newest methods of teaching people in flight business are being applied, the fields of application of parachutes are expanding. Formed and new directions in the sport – parachuting. In this sport, participants are actively competing for accuracy of landing, participate in such categories as long jumps, exercises in individual and group, as well as dome acrobatics.
Recently, new types of sports have appeared in skydiving, such as sky-surfing and freestyle. These areas are quite young (about 10 years), but they are rapidly gaining popularity among extreme people and young people. In addition, there are also such unusual ways of using a parachute as “sitfling” (flying sitting – literally) and freefly.