one of the types of aviation sports; competition in jumping from an aircraft using a parachute; in the USSR, the development of P. s. owes to the activity of Osoaviahima, on the initiative and under whose leadership in the early 1930s. Demonstration jumps began to be held, and then skydiving competitions. The first jumps were made on July 27, 1930 by a group of athletes (6 people) under the direction of military pilot L. G. Minov. After the 1st rally of parachutist athletes (Tushino, 1935), which was attended by 128 men and 20 women from 21 flying clubs in the country, competitions in parachuting, parachute jumping, aircraft jumping techniques were held in many cities. From 1949 all-union competitions on P. were carried out annually.
There are several varieties of P. s.: Classic parachuting, group and domed parachute acrobatics, parachute all-around, para-ski. The World and European Classical Parachuting Championships are held once every 2 years. The first world championship was held in 1951 in Yugoslavia. All-Union competitions were organized annually (since 1956). The following basic exercises can be included in the classic parachute competition program: single and group jumps from 1000–1200 m for landing accuracy in a circle with a radius of 5 m (offset by hitting the center of a target 5 cm in diameter); individual acrobatic jumps from a height of 2000 m with a parachute opening delay of not more than 30 s and performing a set of free-fall figures (spirals and somersaults). The winner of the exact landing is the athlete who had the smallest deviation from the center of the target in all 4-6 jumps, and the team who showed the smallest deviation from the center of the target in the sum of all jumps of the group members (up to 4 people) in all jumps of the exercise.
The winner in single acrobatic jumps is declared an athlete who performed a complex of acrobatic figures in the shortest time. The absolute champion in classical parachuting is considered to be an athlete who has the best performance in the sum of two exercises – single jumps for landing accuracy and single acrobatics.
The World and European Championships in group and dome acrobatics are organized once every 2 years. The first world championship was held in 1975 in Germany. USSR Championships have been held annually since 1982. The program of competitions in group and domed parachute acrobatics includes: group acrobatic jumps in teams of 4 people; group acrobatic jumps teams of 8 people; dome acrobatics (alternation for teams of 4 people); speed building for teams of 8 people with group acrobatic jumps separation from the aircraft (helicopter) is made at an altitude of 3000 m (4 people) or 3800 m (8 people), free fall lasts 50 s (4 people) or 65 s (8 people ). With the domed acrobatics, jumps are performed at a height of 2,200 m (4 people), or 1,500 m (8 people), the paratroopers’ working time is 180 s for a group of 4 people and 100 s for a group of 8 people.
The USSR Parachute Championships have been held since 1975. The competitions included exercises: single and group jumps for landing accuracy; shooting with a small-caliber rifle (50 m, 20 shots); athletics cross-country (men 3 km, women 1500 m); swimming 100m freestyle. The winner was the athlete who showed the best results in the sum of all the exercises.
World Championships in para-ski (from steam (shyut) and ski (from English, Iy ski – ski)) were held in 1987 and 1989. Their program included: downhill skiing and parachute jump on the accuracy of landing in a given square.
P. with. in the USSR, up to 80 thousand people were engaged, about 850 thousand jumps were committed annually. Guide P. with. carried out by the USSR DOSAAF, in training aviation organizations of which the training of athletes was conducted. Aero clubs and aviation clubs DOSAAF had the necessary material resources (aircraft, parachute equipment) and qualified instructors. The main types of parachutes: PO-9, UT-15, UT-15 (series 4). P. with. cultivated in 60 countries of the world (para-ski in 16). During international meetings, Soviet paratroopers repeatedly won prizes. On January 1, 1991, they owned the majority of world records (52 out of 66 registered FAIs). The absolute champions of the world were: I. A. Fedchishin (1954), N. I. Pryakhnna and P. F. Ostrovsky (1958), L. M. Eremina and V. S. Krestyannikov (1966), T. N. Voinova and E. V. Tkachenko (1968), L. G. Yachmenev (1970), N. P. Sergeeva (1974), V. N. Zakoretskaya and G. N. Surabko (1976), I. A. Terlo (1978) , L. A. Korycheva (1982), N. P. Ushmaev – the world’s only parachutist who received this title twice (1974, 1980), S. M. Razamazov (1990). Zakoretskaya – the owner of 51 world records, the only woman in the world who has committed 10 thousand parachute jumps.