The presence of a cargo-pendulum suspended under the wing is an important feature of a parachute-wing, which is absent from other aircraft. Virtually the entire load carried by the dome is suspended at a considerable distance from the wing. This feature leads to the peculiar flight characteristics of the dome in turn. When you enter the dome into a turn, the pilot’s body continues to move in a straight line until the lines when the lines turn it to a new course. If the turn continues, centrifugal force holds the body of the skydiver on an arcuate path. After the termination of the turn, the “suspension” returns back under the dome. It is at the moment when the weight of the parachutist returns to the dome that the maximum speed develops. This occurs as a result of an increase in the specific load on the wing, as well as an additional set of vertical velocity.
The term “wing loading” is often used to describe the weight supported by the wing in the air. In the United States, the canopy load is calculated by dividing the total weight of the parachutist at the time of separation (which is his own weight plus the weight of all equipment) in pounds (1 lb = 0.453 kg) by the square of the dome in square feet (1 foot = 0.309 m). The pilots of the domes often believe that the specific load on the wing remains constant during the flight – and this is true, provided the flight is in a straight line with a constant speed. However, when turning the load on the wing can dramatically increase. Imagine that you are spinning a weight on a string – the higher the rotation speed, the heavier the weight appears. During the flight under the dome, you yourself act as a sinker, acting on the dome supporting you with the same result. The higher the speed of exit from the turn, the greater the load on the dome. We call this load dynamic, in contrast to a simple static load.
Up to a certain point, an increase in the load leads to an improvement in the flight characteristics. If you go back to the analogy with the sleds, moving down from the mountain, the greater the load, the faster the sled rides – until they begin to burrow into the snow or fall apart altogether. The unloaded dome becomes unresponsive to control, and a large load increases speed. As the lift increases in proportion to the square of the speed, the wing produces four times more lift at a speed of 50 km / h than at a speed of 25 km / h. That is why there are enough wings to maintain a jet plane in the air, the area of which looks disproportionately small compared to the wings of Cessna. For the same reason, a trained pilot can use relatively small domes with a specific load of 1.4 and higher – and some are experimenting with a load of more than 2.0. At the same time, improved flight characteristics manifest themselves not only in increased horizontal speed, but also in the angular speed of reversal, when performing a “pillow” and in general, increased responsiveness.
Our discussion has so far been limited to the general aspects of domed aerodynamics, regardless of how they affect the daily practice of sports. Using the terminology defined above, we consider their use in life. To begin with, we emphasize that the domes and control methods are very different from each other, and to put the described principles into practice, it is necessary to clearly know which parameters determine your particular situation.