Parachuting requires the skills of an athlete to perform free-fall with various acrobatic elements, controlled descent and precise smooth landing. It is already far in the past when the parachuter’s outfit weighed 18 kg, the maximum jump height was 800 m, and for jumping it was necessary to undergo training for weeks and have good physical training. Thanks to modern technologies and materials, parachuting has become more widespread, affordable and diverse. To date, there are 2 directions in it: free fall and parachute piloting.
Free fall in parachuting is represented by the following disciplines:
This is a parachutist performing certain movements for a while. Demands from the athlete perfect possession of the body, being in free fall – performing flips, rotations, spirals. During the certification of parachutists, in competitions in classical parachuting, it is mandatory to perform certain elements of individual acrobatics.
Group acrobatics (RW, Relative Work)
This type of parachute sport involves the performance of athletes during the free fall of various shapes and rebuilds in the horizontal plane. To build a previously prepared formation several parachutists form a base. Other parachutists (floaters) fly up to it in a certain sequence, thus forming various figures from connected bodies.
FreeFly (FreeFly, vertical RW, vRW)
Rather new, dynamically developing and most spectacular direction of parachuting. In it, a team of 2 skydivers performs various acrobatic figures using vertical body positions: sitting, standing, head down. Therefore, the speed of their fall can reach 250-300 km / h. And all this removes a flying parachutist operator.
A free fall within a minute gives the parachutist truly unlimited possibilities for translating the most unexpected ideas and performing the most complex movements. In freestyle athletes demonstrate all their plasticity, coordination of movements, elegance and grace.
A type of skydiving in which a skydiver with a special ski performs various shapes in the air. The judges evaluate the jump by the recording of the operator, who jumps with the athlete, so their synchronous work and excellent interaction is very important for the result. At competitions there is a mandatory and arbitrary program. The aerodynamics of a paratrooper on a board is very different from standard parachute jumps, so a lot of experience and years of training are required to participate in sky surfing competitions. To date, the largest number of competitions in parachuting is held in sky surfing.
Piloting the canopy in parachuting plays a major role in such disciplines:
Dome acrobatics (canopy RW, CRW, CReW)
In this kind of parachuting, sportsmen build various figures in the sky and perform rebuilding with the parachute already opened. At the same time, the parachutist should have special techniques for docking and separation from other athletes, high individual skills and extensive experience. Competitions are held in several variations:
4-way rotation – a team of 4 people is given 30 s to build the maximum number of arbitrary figures;
4-way rebuilding differs from rotation in that the figures for construction are chosen in advance by drawing lots;
8-way construction – a team of 8 people must build the figure given by the judges in the shortest possible time.
All this is recorded by the videographer, on the basis of the record of which the evaluation is made by the judges.
Precision Landing (precision canopy)
One of the oldest types of parachuting is that the parachutist should land as accurately as possible at a pre-marked place. If 60 years ago, 80 meters of error when hit by a 100-meter target circle was considered a good result, now at competitions the parachutists get into the small electric sensor- “target” with a heel.
High Speed Landing (swoop)
The main goal of an athlete in this kind of parachuting is to make the longest horizontal flight along the ground at the highest speed before landing. The speed at the approach to the ground can reach 100 km / h, and the height is less than 1 m. This is the most dangerous of all types of parachutism, and injuries of athletes occur in almost every competition.
As for Ukraine, the majority of competitions in parachuting is carried out on the accuracy of landing and on individual acrobatics.
The basis of the safety of parachuting is a strict adherence to the rules and control over the implementation of all stages: equipment preparation, parachute laying, jumping. During the years of development of parachutism, a system of strict rules and regulations, mandatory for safety, was developed.